Next, you need to set up and build your YouTube channel. Your YouTube channel is your homebase for all your content. If you already have a Google account for Gmail or Google Drive, then you can use that to log-in to YouTube and start setting up your channel. Pick a username that works for you and is memorable (if you’re using an existing Google account you’ll have to edit your username in Google+).
If talking on the phone is not practical for you, you can still work a customer service job from home. Many of the same companies that hire call center agents, also hire chat agents. And in addition to these customer service chat jobs, there are other online chat jobs from home. These include answering questions, doing internet research, moderating in social media and more. 
Survey Junkie is among the most straightforward survey sites out there, which puts them at the top of this list. All you have to do is sign up to be eligible for surveys. Once you complete a survey you earn a certain amount of points that you can exchange for cash paid directly to a PayPal account or you can redeem your points for gift cards. Super simple.

This is similar in concept to micro-tasks, except that it is oriented toward specific services, such as cleaning services, pest inspection, handyman services, house cleaning, lawn & garden services or any of the skilled trades. It might actually be more accurate to say that it is a platform where skilled service providers can offer their services to site visitors, similar to Angie’s List.


When was the last time you went to a new restaurant without looking it up online beforehand? Or bought a product that didn’t have at least a few 5-star reviews? It seems like more and more our world is run on reviews. And you can make money online by writing them. Get started by creating accounts on sites like Vindale research, Software Judge, FameBit, CrowdTap, Influence Central, and Modern Mom. However, before you run off and start writing, be sure to check the small print on each of these sites. Writing reviews isn’t a huge source of guaranteed income and you want to make sure that it’s worth your time before you get going.
You may decide to create free videos as extra content for your blog, and not sell them at all. If this is the case then you can still make money from these videos by selling advertising space on them (in the same way as discussed for monetizing podcasts). Once you have high volumes of traffic visiting your blog, and watching your videos, you can charge businesses to advertise at the beginning of your videos. Use website’s like Izea to help you connect with companies willing to pay to advertise on your blog.
Waiting tables and bartending are good ways to make extra money, but it’s not exactly if the work was easy. And if you don’t have any experience good luck applying at the nicest place in town, most restaurants require experience. Also if you have problems dealing with demanding, hungry people – STAY AWAY! The hours are late, sometimes you won’t make any money. Especially right now, starting at new place will be difficult, if you can get hired expect to be the first one cut every night (aka less money) as those with seniority will want to stay. It still is a good deal though. I’ve put myself through college (chem major) without loans, never lived in the dorms, and I have about 10K in the bank. I will continue working in the restaurant biz even after I have a “Real Job,” the extra 10-15K/year for part time work is worth it.
Many businesses can launch and become successful from home while still tending to the little ones and keeping a flexible schedule. Real estate management is one of them. This type of career doesn’t require one to be physically present in an office 40 or more hours per week. However, being available by phone and having access to a computer are essential. Both are accomplished easily by setting up a small office at home and making yourself available on the go. Virtual offices are also a great way to be in several places at once.

Whao! Mr Bob, really am blown away. You know, people say nothing comes free, but you have generously broken that law with all these ideas you freely give. I can’t but say that i am grateful. Particular about idea number 4,6 & 7. I read your article on how to make money by blogging and really , freely giving out all those steps is very generous of you sir becausei know poeple who sell almost every informatiomn they have. The first time i heard about blogging was around 3months ago while discussing with a friend about my first christian book, but your article has really openned me to a whole new world around blogging. I really don’t know how else to show my appreciate because you have freely given me keys to financial independence and i will surely come back to share my testimonies. Thank you somuch sir, your latter will be far greater than your past


That's why I'm a huge advocate of always starting a side business while working full-time, so that you can test your way into your new product or service, get feedback, validate the business idea, and start generating income before you quit your job. If you can master the art of scaling a side business idea while keeping your day job, you'll have no trouble succeeding once you're fully self-employed.
High-ticket consulting or coaching: You could sell your own high-ticket consulting or coaching products from your website. You'll still need a website, merchant account, sales funnel, lead magnet and many other items. But you can easily earn a substantial amount of money from each individual customer, making it well worth the arduous setup required. 
I have a personal blog that I use for journaling. I became good enough that I opened my own business as a social media consultant. I’m now making a decent amount of extra money. I am also a photographer with a lot of graphics program experience, so I make a little more by doing graphic design, photography, and even digital enhancement. You don’t have to be the best at something in order for it to be profitable; you just have to put in the work and be better or cheaper than other people out there. However, it IS work.
If you are a creative mom and have photography skills, you can start a photography service business. Photography isn’t easy, but it is something where you can choose your own schedule. You won’t need to have your own studio as most photography services these days are done outdoors. This is a wonderful side hustle where you can earn and enjoy at the same time.
“The massage therapy business has been growing by leaps and bounds in the last decade, tripling in volume. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook, it should grow by an additional 20% through 2016, meaning this home business has strong potential for growth. And, because all in-home massage services are necessarily local in nature, it’s work that can’t be outsourced to another country.”
There are numerous printing companies that will print your designs onto not just T-shirts, but also hoodies, hats, posters, cushions, bags, and phone cases, to name a few items. These businesses also offer fulfillment services. This means that you promote the merchandise on your own site and once you sell a product the printing company will not only print your design but also send the item directly to the buyer. So all you have to do is concentrate on the marketing and selling of your products, and the fulfillment company will take care of the rest.

Think blogging is no longer a viable source of income? Think again. Tens of thousands of bloggers (including yours truly) are creating profitable content on topics as diverse as scrapbooking, home cooking, travel, film, lifestyle, business, personal finance and more. And we're growing our blogs into six-figure businesses thanks to a combination of email subscribers, affiliate marketing, blog sponsorships, and other revenue streams. Your first step with starting a blog is quickly getting the technical side of things handled (my free master course on blogging will show you how), and then both understanding what your audience craves and learning how to attract those readers online.

Take it seriously. Yes, you’re applying for an online job. Yes, you can do the work in your underwear, but that doesn’t mean it’s not a “real job”. You must treat it as such or they aren’t going to treat you as a serious candidate. You aren’t the only one who wants to work in their underwear. In fact, the competition online is likely higher than it is in your local area.


Once you’ve established yourself in any number of freelance verticals online, spending your time focusing just on doing inside sales (booking freelance contracts with high-value clients) and then subcontracting your work out to other freelancers can help significantly grow your client list, and revenue generating possibilities with this business idea.
Let’s be honest. Those little people grow out of their clothes faster than you can keep up. When it’s time to get rid of the clothes they’ve outgrown, you have a few options. Put them out in your standard yard sale, sell them to a consignment store, or post them on social media. Apps like Kidizen are specially designed for selling your kid’s gently used threads. And of course, you can use other sites like Poshmark, thredUp, Craigslist and eBay to sell children’s clothing too.
Obviously some of these small business ideas have more earning potential than others, but what they all share in common are relatively low barriers to entry and the flexibility to work at them for a limited amount of time per week. I also tried to focus on side business ideas that have some sort of online component to them, since that's what I love most.
Then you can move into more actionable online courses like Modern Web Design on CreativeLive and Learn Web Design and Profitable Freelancing on Udemy will teach you everything from foundational web design knowledge to earning your first freelance income as a web designer. On top of that, you can take even more immersive courses and learning experiences with access to direct instructor feedback and personal mentorship with platforms like Treehouse, LinkedIn Learning and General Assembly to get up-to-speed even quicker with this career path and listen to my podcast interview with Ian Paget about how to become a freelance designer as a side business idea.
Despite the proliferation of the internet, print media is here to stay for the foreseeable future! Fliers, newsletters, magazines, information sheets, letters and advertisements are just a few of the types of print media that business hire freelancers to create for them. Websites and online advertising need graphic design services as well. Even if your expertise is only in design, offer the works for potential clients, including the editorial creation and the printing and even mailing of the final piece. You can line up regular freelancers for those parts of the job you can't do.

Equally, you can charge businesses to ‘claim’ their listing, a method used by many large directory sites like Google Business and Yelp. This involves companies paying to upgrade their listing and adding information such as their web address, social media links, images, and more. Other revenue streams include charging for ad space, adding affiliate links and even charging for services and products on your directory site.
If you have graphic design skills then you could make money online by creating and selling your own design elements, like templates, fonts, graphics, and other assets. This is a great way to earn extra money and build up a portfolio of work, which could lead to you picking up freelance graphic design jobs. Websites like Envato Elements pay you a fee per element sold, which can become quite profitable if your work is popular.
Thank you for the input. I think your probably right….the purse selling would be a huge challenge. Thank you for the suggestions 1 & 2. My husband owns a complete auto care business and we are leaning towards purchasing vehicles from individual sellers to resell. That may be the more certain route to take. We have access to auto technicians and auto equipment etc. I was kinda trying to do something myself, I’ll get back to brain storming!
Love dogs, but not ready to get one of your own? Get your fix by taking care of other people’s pooches — and get paid for it. If your home isn’t dog-friendly, consider becoming a dog walker. Apps like Wag! offer on-demand dog walking, so you can pick up walks when your schedule allows. If you have space (and your landlord’s permission, if you rent), offer overnight dog boarding. Dog sitters on Rover.com, the go-to site for pet-sitting, generally command $25 to $35 a night, according to the company.

Find a profitable niche: We’ve talked about this a lot. But, where are you most comfortable. What niche do your skills, values, and interests intersect? Do you have 10 years of experience as a technical writer? Do you have long-standing PR relationships that’ll be invaluable in helping startups launch a successful crowdfunding campaign? Determine what makes your value unique, and lean heavily on showcasing that strength to your potential clients.
With Izea, you are getting paid for whenever a company wants to advertise themselves through your blog and/or social media accounts (such as your Twitter account). You get paid electronically, and they always pay. They partner with big name companies such as Marriott, Netflix, Walmart, Kraft, Lego, and more. It's an EASY way to make money through your social media accounts, so I highly recommend you check Izea out.
I’m a reference this blog post in a thread in the near future on DNN and recommend people visit your blog about making extra money in 2018. I’m really glad you mentioned this because you have a lot of interesting sites linked on here that I need to check out. I have some household items I need to sell and will look back at this post again momentarily. Thank you for just being you, Nick. :-)
Online course business has been growing for a while now, and with more people getting comfortable purchasing information products online, why would it stop? There are many moms who have online course businesses about rather peculiar subjects, such as dog agility training, autism therapy, and growing herbs. These businesses are making a lot of money. For instance, the dog training course made the owner more than a million dollars from a single launch. With all the online course platforms available today, you don’t have to worry about any of the technical stuff, either. Just create your content, record some videos ― they seem to work best ― and launch your course. So, what is something that you could teach to the world?
This is a more technical way to make money online then most of the other strategies given. But you can get an excellent course on how to make it happen with Steve Chou’s Create a Profitable Online Store program. Steve and his wife have built a highly successful online store – selling wedding napkins – and he’s anxious to provide insider secrets to people who sign up for his course..
Hi, came across this information after trying to brain storm of fun way to make extra $$. I’m a RN and work 3 days a week and have 4 days off! (Best part of the job ?) I am thinking of trying to purchase Authenticate designer handbags and creating a page to resale. My delima is how to find a reputable supplier. Do you have any ideas?? I’ve even gone to Designer handbag selling sites and asked…all I get are members wanting to sell me “their” purchases at a small discounted price.
I may as well start with something I know well. When I started out as a freelance writer 20 years ago, things were very different. I wrote mostly for magazines, and I had to rely on snail mail to send out drafts and queries. I’d wait weeks for a response from my editors. Not many people had the patience for it, and few stuck around long enough to ever start earning a real income from it.
While I think that your initial response to Phillip’s suggestion about design was a little too strong, Dasjung, I’ve got to chime in here and observe that Phil, ThunderCock and Dumbass, by resorting to name calling and simplistic reasoning, come across as very lacking in both decorum and sensitivity.  If a guy wants to expect, even demand, high quality in his field of choice, I beleive he has a right, if not a responsibility, to do so!  Also, Dumbass, be careful who you call Dumbass. You just show YOUR true colors by doing so. 

So, I put together a free master course for you to take that spreads out all of the work involved in starting a blog, into a series of action-packed lessons. My free course breaks the entire process of starting a blog down into an incredibly simple 7-day process for going from 0 to publishing (and promoting) your first blog post in just 1 week. I can't recommend it enough.

Finally, when looking around for the right personal finance software that meets your needs, make sure that you’re comfortable with the program’s interface. It shouldn’t be expected that you recognize every single feature instantly, but if the features don’t seem readable and manageable to you, then you’re not as likely to use it and get the full benefits.
Even in the age of automation, some jobs still require a human touch. Companies often outsource those jobs via services like Amazon’s Mechanical Turk. These jobs can be tedious — tagging images, transcribing videos, classifying receipts — and can take anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours. Pay depends on the task, and the person requesting the work gets to approve the finished product before paying you. That can leave room for scams, so do your research and join a community like TurkNation, which can steer you away from shifty dealers. Read more about doing tasks on Mechanical Turk.
Furthermore you could use a course platform to create and teach online courses on any topic you choose — this is becoming super popular and is something we ourselves do (we have an online course we teach on social media marketing). Either way — most people typically need a platform to accomplish either of these and a blog is typically the easiest way to accomplish that (although that in and of itself can take months to years to really gain traction). We have a blog setup tutorial if you’re interested (just let me know and I’ll get you some good resources).
This list is great, thanks! I wanted to point out, though, that it looks like at least some of the transcription jobs are listed as paying per audio hour which would work out to a lot less per hour of work. One hour of audio can take 3 to 4 hours for an experienced transcriber to complete, so $24/audio hour=$6-8/hour. Just something for people to be aware of.
Again, video is much more expensive to produce than written content, so while it’s always good to be versatile, it’s especially important as a video editor or producer. Try to become an expert in every aspect of video production, from lighting to sound to editing footage. Know the difference between what works on a Facebook Live and what works on YouTube.
There are few ways to make money while you shop. You can pick up short tasks that involve shopping, like doing price checks or photographing in stores or you can go mystery shopping. Mystery shopping is definitely a real way to make money but you have to be careful because the jobs can be the bait for scams, so you have to know the signs of mystery shopping scams. But there are legitimate companies that hire mystery shoppers. 
“I love working for TTEC@home. I get to interact with and help others from the comfort of my own home. (Have you ever been in Houston traffic rush hour? That says it all!) Plus, they have some of the most amazing people I’ve ever had the privilege of working with. They aren’t just here to draw a paycheck. They truly care about their co-workers. I work many miles from the brick and mortar buildings, but I have a sense of security that my coworkers have my back and I’m not alone.”
27. Sponsored/paid posts – Many blogs publish sponsored and paid posts. Sponsored posts are basically just posts about a specific brand, product or service. A company will pay you to publish an article about it. It’s similar with other paid posts as well. Your basically selling the spot for the article on your site. If you decide to take this route, you’ll want to build your traffic before you will get many offers.
If you’ve never heard of extreme couponing, check out this lifehack on the subject. Once you’re versed on the idea, what you have to do is a bit difficult at first, but it’s a great way to both save and make money: go to hip2save.com and get a feel for the types of deals that are out there (both online and in the physical world). Once you’re comfortable with the process, start searching for the best deals in grocery, retail, and online shopping. After a month or two of extreme couponing, you’ll have enough cleaning, hygiene, and food supplies stocked up to save a noticeable amount of money. Now maybe you don’t need to make as much…?
Got a thing for numbers? Plenty of companies need to hire talented contractors who are good at data analysis, making this a potentially lucrative side business idea if you have the right credentials and experience. Platforms like Upwork and Digiserved are but a two of many websites that are great for freelancers with an analytical prowess, looking for extra work as a side business idea around their full-time jobs.
– Project Payday is one of those sites that has testimonials of people who have earned thousands of dollars by getting paid to get trial offers. I’m not saying you’ll earn thousands, but it is legit and you can earn some extra cash. They assume that by paying you to do a free trial, you’ll either like the product and purchase it, or forget to cancel the trial and get charged for it. If you can keep track and cancel before you get charged (if you don’t want the product), then this is a great site for making some money.
Competition to get into top universities is as tough as it has ever been, so nervous parents are willing to pay handsomely for tutoring for their kids. You need an area of expertise—math, and specifically SAT math preparation, is always a favorite—but almost any subject will work. If you know how to market yourself locally, you can take advantage of parental paranoia and make money by tutoring right in your own home, or at a local library or coffee shop. Just make sure to do your homework on your local market in order to set prices and know which areas of expertise are most desired by parents in your area.
Drop shipping is another great ‘hands-off’ way to sell products. Firstly you will need to find businesses that sell products in your niche that offer a drop shipping service. Then you will need to create a website promoting and selling the products. When you make a sale, you take the payment on your site and then the manufacturer ships the goods to the buyer. The profit comes from charging a higher rate than the manufacturer, and if you are selling a high number of products this can quickly add up to a healthy revenue.

Are you seeing the possibilities here?  Think about what book, or series of books you could write to help people in your field of expertise?  You might start with an eBook offered on your own website that covers the basics.  Use the eBook as an opportunity to tell people about your more in-depth book on Amazon and finally, follow through with an advanced book offering.
Checking offer is not available to existing Chase checking customers, those with fiduciary accounts, or those whose accounts have been closed within 90 days or closed with a negative balance. To receive the $200 checking bonus: 1) Open a new Chase Total Checking account, which is subject to approval; 2) Deposit $25 or more at account opening; AND 3) Have your direct deposit made to this account within 60 days of account opening.  Your direct deposit needs to be an electronic deposit of your paycheck, pension or government benefits (such as Social Security) from your employer or the government. After you have completed all the above requirements, we’ll deposit the bonus in your new account within 10 business days. You can only receive one new checking account-related bonus per calendar year. Bonus is considered interest and will be reported on IRS Form 1099-INT.

From grad school to kindergarten, the opportunities to teach from the comfort of your home are endless. One warning, though: online or in class, the pay for teachers is abysmal at best. K-12 online teachers average about $40K per year; online college professors average around $60k (18), (19). But remember, that’s for only three-quarters of the year. Summers off? That’s hard to beat.
But before you can graduate from side business idea and start earning a full-time living as a graphic designer, you'll need to build your skills—I recommend starting with reading the foundational book Graphic Design School and Steal Like an Artist, the incredible book by Austin Kleon about how to become more creative. To accelerate your education in becoming a graphic designer even quicker, check out the online courses Graphic Design Fundamentals and The Graphic Design Bootcamp. Then once you're an expert at your craft, you can further your education and move up to offering  more hands-on experiences like design sprints for higher-value clients around the world.

“The massage therapy business has been growing by leaps and bounds in the last decade, tripling in volume. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook, it should grow by an additional 20% through 2016, meaning this home business has strong potential for growth. And, because all in-home massage services are necessarily local in nature, it’s work that can’t be outsourced to another country.”


Could you make an extra $200 per month? Sure. How about an extra $1000 per month? How would that change your life? To most, it would make a monumental difference. But what if  we were talking thousands more per month or even tens of thousands more? How would that alter the trajectory of your life? Clearly, you can make money on the internet. You just have to decide how much of your time it's worth.

During my long search for an online business, I found a network marketing company that’s just about to do its public launch. It was set up specifically to run online. In this way, you can contact only the seemingly endless supply people that have already shown interest. You don’t have to worry about those dreaded headaches of old-style network marketing. Because it’s built into the process members are freely interact, communicating and supporting each other openly online without asking whose team they are on. With the network marketing business model and the vast market on the internet, I think that a lot more people will find this option appealing.
Mobile technology has changed and will continue to change in the future how we communicate and work with one another, including operating on-the-road businesses. Bringing your services and/or products directly to your clients saves them time and money. At the start-up, you can operate a mobile business part-time, around your regular job; and with just the basics of a laptop computer, a cell phone, and the specific tools needed to perform your work.
Teaching and tutoring English as a second language is a great way to make money online, not to mention open some doors for you to travel the world if you'd like. While full ESL (English as a Second Language) accreditation is recommended, as long as you’re a native speaker and have the ability to teach, there are people in countries such as Hong Kong or the UAE who are willing to pay upwards of $25/hr for you to tutor them English via Skype. Check out Indeed, Learn4Good and Remote.co for remote english tutoring jobs or sign up on a specialized site like VerbalPlanet or Chegg Tutors.
It works essentially the same way as the phone apps do above. If you don’t care to let Google know what you do on a daily basis, you can make money from home by letting them monitor your Internet usage. They use the information they gather to help them market/increase the functionality of their advertising programs when targeting users that are similar to you.
Note:  There are dozens of other survey sites out there. These just happen to be the more well-known ones that have a reputation for paying out in a timely manner and not having impossible standards for cashing out. As always, be careful with your personal information. I recommend using an entirely separate email address for survey sites so they don’t clutter your inbox.
Service. Another key aspect of successful B&Bs is the level of service that the hosts provide. You’re not just offering room and board, but an experience. If they need help planning a day seeing the sites, offer to sit down with them and help them plan their itinerary. If a businessperson needs copies for a presentation, offer to go and make them. Remember, your job as host will be to make your guests’ stays as comfortable and pleasurable as possible. If you succeed, they’ll remember you the next time they travel through your town.

Valentine's day. Birthdays. Weddings. The list goes on and on—throughout the course of a year, there are dozens of occasions when people need to order flowers. What's more is that once you're up to speed with this business idea, your costs can stay relatively low if you know where to source your flowers, and typical margins are in the neighborhood of 300% (or more) on cut flowers which makes this a particularly profitable side business idea in the right geographic area. Check out this amazing interview with floral designer, Sara Tedford of Ladybird Poppy to hear about how her floral design company started out as a side business idea of doing weddings and events for her friends and family.
Just a few years ago, I never thought I would be staff writing, and I never even thought about it. But once I began, I really started to enjoy it. I really love to write (yes, I do realize that I’m not the best and I probably should proofread more, but I do like to talk), and writing for different blogs was fun for me. How are people supposed to know that you are looking for a freelance writing position?

Amazon: Many people don’t realize that Amazon is a haven for third party sellers, including regular Joes and Janes cleaning out their attics and garages. If you plan to sell more than 40 items per month on Amazon, consider registering as a professional seller. You’ll need to pay a $39.99 monthly subscription fee, a referral fee that usually ranges from 6% to 20%,  and a $1.35-per-item closing fee for media items. You won’t pay the $0.99-per-item selling fee, however. Alternatively, register as an individual seller. The fee schedule is the same as for professionals, except you do have to pay the selling fee and don’t have to pay the subscription fee.

If you can do everything, then you can become a one-man film crew who allows a company to cut costs while still enjoying video advertisement revenue. That makes you powerful asset, because it allows the company to reduce risks and can help keep you employed full-time. So, if you’re already a pro at setting up a shot, make sure you also have mastered the software you need. If you’re a wiz on the computer, try doing some Facebook Lives, interviews and other sorts of videos to make sure you’re prepared for anything.
This next category is one of my favorites. And, it applies to almost everyone looking for a good side hustle. Why? Because it is something everyone should be doing regardless of whether they are looking for a little something to earn a few pennies during commercial breaks that requires minimal effort or they are looking to create a full-time income from home.

 Tutoring can be done in-home or online. The in-home tutoring will take networking and teaching experience to build your business. Online tutoring, however, can be done through companies that connect tutors with students while providing the needed infrastructure (i.e. web conferencing services) for a cut of the fees. Most require a college degree and teaching experience but for some those requirements may be negotiable.


Using the money you already have to make more money is usually a pretty smart move. A service like Lending Club is a great way to act as a lender and earn interest on your money. Essentially, you act as the bank, which is pretty neat. Lending Club is the world’s largest online credit marketplace connecting borrowers and investors. Definitely something worth looking into!


Français: se faire de l'argent en ligne, Italiano: Guadagnare Online, Español: ganar dinero en Internet, Português: Ganhar Dinheiro Online, Deutsch: Online Geld verdienen, Русский: заработать в интернете, 中文: 在网上赚钱, Bahasa Indonesia: Menghasilkan Uang Secara Online, Čeština: Jak vydělávat peníze online, Nederlands: Online geld verdienen, العربية: كسب المال بواسطة العمل عبر الإنترنت, Tiếng Việt: Kiếm tiền Trực tuyến, हिन्दी: ऑनलाइन पैसे कमाएँ, 한국어: 온라인으로 돈 버는 법, ไทย: หาเงินออนไลน์, Türkçe: İnternet'ten Nasıl Para Kazanılır, 日本語: オンライン上でお金を稼ぐ

And while it will take time to build up a big-enough audience to attract advertisers and other ways to make extra income from your podcast, the opportunity is there. John Lee Dumas interviews entrepreneurs seven days a week for his podcast Entrepreneur on Fire and now makes more than $200,000 a month from it. In fact, John publishes all his income online and showed that he’s made almost $13 million since launching in 2012.
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